Dutch Royal Family Breadcrumb
Die Monarchie der Niederlande ist die konstitutionelle Monarchie der Niederlande. Als solche werden die Rolle und Position des Monarchen durch die Verfassung der Niederlande definiert und begrenzt. - Erkunde europeroyalss Pinnwand „Dutch Royal Family“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Niederlande, Niederländisches königshaus, Königlich. Queen Maxima Photos Photos: The Dutch Royal Family Hold Annual Summer Photo Call. May Queen Maxima Photos - King Willem-Alexander of the. Abonnenten, 90 folgen, Beiträge - Sieh dir Instagram-Fotos und -Videos von The Dutch Royal Family (@thedutchroyalfamily) an. Perfekte Dutch Royal Family Summer Photocall Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder.
Helen Coffman hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Die Monarchie der Niederlande ist die konstitutionelle Monarchie der Niederlande. Als solche werden die Rolle und Position des Monarchen durch die Verfassung der Niederlande definiert und begrenzt. On August 5, Princess Irene of the Netherlands turned On September 16, , King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, Princess Margriet. Henry Casimir II. The Dutch royal house remained quite small until the latter s and the early s, during which Juliana gave birth to four daughters. Prince Hendrik was Spiele Kostenlos Web.De no part or role in the Netherlands whatsoever. And since the government is one, the monarch abides by the decision of the ministers. Wilhelmina established popular support for the Dutch Royal Family that essentially holds to this day [ citation needed ]. He was this web page by his son, William III. Main article: Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Both descended from Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. Her Majesty click to see more extends a welcoming hand to the other royal houses of Europe, which include the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway and Spain.
Although the constitution does not say so, the monarch is the head of state of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. As such, the monarch is the face of the kingdom toward the world: ambassadors of the Netherlands are emissaries of the monarch, foreign ambassadors represent foreign heads of state to the monarch.
And even though head-of-government responsibility lies with the Prime Minister, it is the monarch that makes state visits to foreign heads of state as representative of the Netherlands.
It is also the monarch whose face is shown on Dutch stamps and Dutch euro coins. Constitutionally, the monarch is the head of the Dutch Council of State.
First, it is an advisory council to the government which advises on the desirability, practicability and constitutionality of new proposals of law.
Second, it is the Supreme court for the Netherlands in matters of administrative law. The role played by the monarch in the Council is largely theoretical due to ministerial responsibility.
While the monarch is officially head of the Council, in practice the king never votes in Council meetings and always turns over his responsibility as chair of the meetings to the deputy head of the Council.
He is presumed to be part of the discussions though. Despite the limitations on the role the monarch may play in the Council, his involvement is seen as valuable due to the experience and knowledge that a monarch accrues over the years.
Reciprocally, being part of the Council deliberations is considered invaluable training and preparation for the role of monarch, which is why the heir-apparent is constitutionally an observer-member of the Council from the time he comes of age.
Lastly, the monarch plays a very large but completely unofficial role in the running of the country as advisor and confidant to the government.
This duty traditionally takes the form of a weekly meeting between the Prime Minister and the monarch in which they discuss the affairs of the week, the plans of the cabinet and so on.
It is assumed that the monarch exerts most of his influence as such in these meetings, in that he can bring his knowledge and experience to bear in what he tells the Prime Minister.
In the case of Queen Beatrix, several former Prime Ministers have remarked that her case knowledge of each and every dossier is extensive and that she makes sure to be fully aware of all the details surrounding everything that lands on her desk.
Perhaps somewhat surprisingly for a monarchy, the monarch is not formally the commander-in-chief of the military of the Netherlands.
He was until , but a large overhaul of the constitution that year shifted supreme command of the armed forces to the government as a whole.
Article 40 of the constitution states that the monarch is to receive an annual stipend from the kingdom in other words wages , except that it cannot be called that since the monarch is not employed by the country but rather the other way around.
The exact rules surrounding these stipends are to be determined by law, as is the list of members of the royal house who also receive them.
Under current Dutch law the monarch receives an annual stipend which is part of the annual budget, as do the heir-apparent if of age , the spouse of the monarch, the spouse of the heir-apparent, the former monarch, and the spouse of the former monarch.
The monarch receives this stipend constitutionally, the others because they are not allowed to work for anybody due to their positions.
This stipend is linked to the development of the wages of Dutch civil servants. At the beginning of there was some upset in the parliament about the cost of the royal house and the lack of insight into the structure of those costs.
At the insistence of the parliament the development of the stipends of the royal house members was then linked to the development of the salaries of the Dutch civil servants.
In September , at the first budget debate in parliament during the economic crisis, it was pointed out to the parliament that their earlier decision meant that the stipend to the queen would now also increase.
This in turn was reason for the parliament to be displeased again. Under the constitution, royal house members receiving a stipend are exempt from income tax over that stipend.
The monarch has the use of Huis ten Bosch as a residence and Noordeinde Palace as a work palace. In addition the Royal Palace of Amsterdam is also at the disposal of the monarch although it is only used for state visits and is open to the public when not in use for that purpose , as is Soestdijk Palace which is open to the public and not in official use at all at this time.
The monarch has the use of an airplane and a train for state visits although the airplane is not exclusively reserved for the monarch anymore and the train spends most of its time on display at the Dutch Railway Museum.
The monarch is protected by law against Lese-majesty. This is actively enforced,    although the sentences tend to be light.
According to Dutch TV , in total 18 prosecutions were brought under the law between and , half of which resulted in convictions.
The royal family has become quite extensive since the birth of Queen Juliana 's children. By consequence so has the Dutch royal house nominally the collection of persons in line for the throne and their spouses , to the extent that membership of the royal house was limited by a change in the law in Despite being a large clan, the family as a whole has very little to do officially with Dutch government or the running of the Netherlands.
Constitutionally, an important role is played by the monarch. Since neither the monarch nor the heir-apparent may hold jobs, they receive a stipend from the government.
Their spouses are similarly forbidden from earning an income and receive a stipend as well. But constitutionally that is the whole of the involvement of the royal family with the Dutch government.
In particular, members of the royal house other than the monarch and the heir-apparent have no official tasks within the Dutch government and do not receive stipends.
They are responsible for their own conduct and their own income. They may be asked to stand in from time to time such as to accompany the monarch on a state visit if the consort is ill, but this is always a personal favor and not an official duty.
In addition, they are not exempt from taxation. Many members of the royal family hold or have held significant positions within civil society , usually functioning as head or spokesperson of one or more charitable organizations , patron of the arts and similar endeavors.
Some members of the royal family are also or have been avid supporters of some personal cause; Prince Bernhard for instance was always passionate about the treatment of World War II veterans and Princess Margriet who was born in Canada has a special relationship with Canadian veterans specifically.
As a rule of thumb, the members of the royal family who are contemporaries of Princess Beatrix tend to hold civil society positions as a primary occupation whereas younger family members hold these positions in conjunction with a regular, paying job.
A notable exception to this rule is Pieter van Vollenhoven husband to Princess Margriet , who was chairman of the Dutch Safety Board until his retirement.
As noted earlier, the spouses of the monarch and the heir-apparent are forbidden from holding paying jobs or government responsibilities.
This is to prevent any monetary entanglements or undue influences involving the current and future monarchs. These legal limits were not a great problem when they were instituted in the 19th century; The Netherlands had kings and it was considered normal for a married woman to tend the household, raise the family and not to hold any position outside the home.
The limits have been more problematic since the early 20th century, when the monarchy of the Netherlands passed to a series of queens and the consorts became men, starting with Prince Hendrik in The male consorts since then have all either been raised with an expectation of government responsibility such as Prince Hendrik , or had established careers of their own before marrying the future queen Prince Bernhard and Prince Claus.
Upon marrying into the Dutch royal family they all found themselves severely restricted in their freedom to act and make use of their abilities.
All of the male consorts have been involved in some form of difficulty or another scandals involving infidelity and finances in the cases of Hendrik and Bernhard, deep depression in the case of Claus and it has been widely speculated and even generally accepted that sheer boredom played at least a part in all of these difficulties.
Over time the restrictions on royal consorts have eased somewhat. Prince Hendrik was allowed no part or role in the Netherlands whatsoever.
Due to his war efforts, Prince Bernhard was made Inspector General of the Dutch armed forces although that role was created for him and was an unofficial ambassador for the Netherlands who leveraged his wartime contacts to help Dutch industry.
All that came to a halt in however, after the Lockheed bribery scandals. Prince Claus was allowed more leeway still after having established himself in Dutch society he was unpopular at first, being a German marrying into the royal family after World War II ; he was eventually given an advisorship within the Ministry for Development Cooperation pertaining to Africa , where he made good use of his experiences as a German diplomat in that continent.
Although Dutch lawmakers have historically favored being very conservative about creating special legal positions for members of the royal house or the royal family, there is one area in which the rules for members of the royal house are very different from those for other Dutch citizens: the area of death and burial.
The reason for this exceptional position of members of the royal house is traditional. Ever since the burial of William the Silent in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft , members of the Orange-Nassau family have favored burial in the same crypt where William was entombed some members of the family buried elsewhere were even moved there later.
However, for health and hygiene reasons, burial in churches was forbidden in the Netherlands by decree of William I in the practice had been banned before under French occupation of the country, but returned after In order to allow entombing of members of the Royal family, all Dutch laws pertaining to burial have made an exception for the royal house ever since the decree.
Burial of members of the royal house is completely a matter of tradition, circumstance, practicality and spirit of the times this due to the lack of any formal rules whatsoever.
As a rule of thumb, the body of a deceased member of the royal house is placed on display for a few days in one of the palaces, to allow the family to say goodbye.
Depending on the identity of the deceased a deceased monarch, for instance , there may also be a viewing for the public.
Then, on the burial day, the body is transported to Delft in a special horse-drawn carriage. Current protocol specifies eight horses for a deceased monarch and six for a deceased royal consort which is relatively new, since Prince Hendrik was borne to Delft by eight horses.
The current carriage is purple with white trim this has also changed since the burial of Queen Wilhelmina in , when the carriage was white.
Currently, the route to Delft is lined by members of the Dutch armed forces which is also new since the burial of Prince Hendrik, which was a very quiet affair.
Once in Delft, the body is entombed in the family crypt after a short service. Only members of the family are allowed into the crypt, through the main entrance in the church which is only opened for royal funerals the mayor of Delft has a key to a separate service entrance, which is only opened in the presence of two military police officers and two members of the Dutch General Intelligence and Security Service for maintenance.
The importance and position of the monarchy within Dutch society has changed over time, together with changes in the constitutional position of the monarchy.
The monarchy of the Netherlands was established in as a reaction to the decline and eventual fall of the Dutch Republic. It was observed at the time that a large part of the decline of the republic was due to a lack of a strong, central government in the face of strong, centrally led competitor nations such as Great Britain and the French kingdom.
After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in and the resurrection of the Netherlands, it was decided to reform the republic in the Kingdom of the Netherlands with a monarchy rather than the old stadtholder system.
The original monarchy was absolute in nature, with the States-General serving as more of an advisory board without the power to do much against the king.
This state of affairs allowed the king great freedom to determine the course of the nation and indeed William I was able to push through many changes that set the nation on the course towards industrialization and wealth.
On the other hand, his policies caused great discord with the Southern Netherlands, leading to the Belgian Revolution and a years-long war.
A backlash against these policies plus rising fear of early Marxism led to acceptance by William II of a series of reforms, starting with a new constitution in which was the start of a continuing series of limitations on royal power.
Direct political power and influence of the king continued until , although it slowly declined in the meantime.
Both William I and William II proved quite conservative rulers although William II was less inclined to interfere with policy than his father was , William I resisted major reforms until eventually conflict with the States-General and his own government forced his abdication.
William III 's reign was a continuous saga of power struggles between the monarch and the parliamentary government which he forced out a couple of times , plus major international crises due to the same stubbornness including the Luxembourg Crisis.
As a result, the Dutch government used the succession of William III by a female regent as an opportunity to make a power play and establish government authority over royal authority.
Queen Wilhelmina was not happy with the new situation and made several half-hearted attempts during her reign to reassert authority.
She was partly successful in certain areas being able to push for military rearmament before World War I but she never succeeded in restoring royal power.
She did introduce a new concept to Dutch royalty though: the popular monarch. Establishing her popularity in military circles through her support of Dutch military prior to , she was able to wield her personal popularity to uphold the government against a socialist revolution in Royal power continued to decline until the start of World War II.
Forced to flee to London , Queen Wilhelmina established the position of "mother of the Dutch state" through her radio broadcasts into the occupied Netherlands and her support for other Dutchmen evading the Germans and fighting from England.
She tried to position her family into more influence by giving Prince Bernhard an important position in the military, but was still relegated to a position of constitutional monarchy after the war.
Following Wilhelmina's abdication in , the Orange family seems to have settled for a position of unofficial influence behind the scenes coupled with a role as "popular monarchs" in public.
As such the monarchs are practically never seen in public doing their official work except news footage of state visits and the reading of the government plans on Prinsjesdag and instead their relationship with the public has become more of a popular and romanticized notion of royalty.
Queens Juliana and Beatrix were popularly perceived to have a figurehead role, serving to some extent as "mother of the nation" in times of crises and disasters such as the floods.
In addition, there is a public holiday called Koningsdag before Koninginnedag , during which the royal family pays a visit somewhere in the country and participates in local activities and traditions in order to get closer to the people.
The popularity of the monarchy has changed over time, with constitutional influence, circumstance and economic tides. When the monarchy was established in , popularity was not a major concern.
This changed drastically over the following years as William I's policies alienated the Southern Netherlands, drew the country into civil war and established industries that favored the rich Protestants and not the general populace.
Royal popularity remained relatively low throughout the reign of the kings. William II was conservative, but on the whole did as little to lose popularity as he did to gain it.
Economic decline drove most of his popular decline, although popular support for the monarch was still not considered of much import then.
William III was unpopular under a wide section of the public. Royal popularity started to increase with Wilhelmina's ascent to the throne.
She pushed for national reforms, was a huge supporter of the armed forces and strove for renewed industrialization.
Around the country was generally divided into two camps: socialists in the cities, royalists elsewhere. This showed in the dividing lines during the failed Troelstra revolution , where Troelstra gained popular support in the larger cities but the countryside flocked to the queen.
Wilhelmina was able to muster popular support with a countryside "publicity tour" together with her daughter — this showing of popular support for the queen was instrumental in halting the revolution and stabilizing the government.
Still, Wilhelmina remained deeply unpopular in the cities throughout the s and s. Wilhelmina was forced to retreat to London, but refused evacuation all the way to Canada although princess Juliana was sent there with her children.
Wilhelmina regularly held radio broadcasts into the occupied Netherlands and staunchly supported the Dutch troops in exile. She became the symbol for Dutch resistance against the Germans.
Wilhelmina established popular support for the monarchy that essentially holds to this day [ citation needed ]. Prior to the Batavian Revolution of , the semi-independent provinces of the Netherlands had chief-executives called stadtholders , who were all drawn from the House of Orange or the House of Nassau by primogeniture.
After the office became formally hereditary in all seven provinces in the House of Orange-Nassau.
Their title ' Prince of Orange ' was acquired through inheritance of the Principality of Orange in southern France , in From to his death in , he led the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain.
His younger brother, John VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg , Stadtholder of Utrecht, was the direct male line ancestor of the later Stadtholders of Friesland and Groningen , the later hereditary stadtholders and the first King of the Netherlands.
The Netherlands remained, formally, a confederated republic, even when in the office of stadtholder was centralized one stadtholder for all provinces and became formally hereditary under the House of Orange-Nassau.
The present monarchy was founded in , when the French were driven out. The new regime was headed by Prince William Frederick of Orange, the son of the last stadtholder.
He originally reigned over only the territory of the old republic as " sovereign prince ".
As part of the rearrangement of Europe at the Congress of Vienna , the House of Orange-Nassau was confirmed as rulers of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , enlarged with what are now Belgium and Luxembourg.
At the same time, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for ceding his family's hereditary lands in Germany to Nassau-Weilburg and Prussia.
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was a part of the Netherlands until while at the same time a member state of the German Confederation.
It became fully independent in , but remained in a personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands until Abdication of the throne has become a de facto tradition in the Dutch monarchy.
It became the Protestant Church in the Netherlands after its merger, but some members of the Royal Family are Catholic.
There is no law in the Netherlands stipulating what religion the monarch should be, although the constitution stipulated up to that marriage to a catholic meant loss of rights to the throne the constitutional overhaul of changed this to a requirement that potential heirs must seek parliamentary approval before marriage in order to retain rights of succession.
As such, these items have a cultural significance beyond that of simple artworks and jewellery, and have therefore been placed in the hands of trusts: the House of Orange-Nassau Archives Trust and the House of Orange-Nassau Historic Collections Trust.
Queen Juliana had sold the remaining royal palaces and had put the cultural assets paintings, antiques, books, etc.
The crown jewels , comprising the crown , orb and sceptre , Sword of State , royal banner, and ermine mantle have been placed in the Crown Property Trust.
The trust also holds the items used on ceremonial occasions, such as the carriages, table silver, and dinner services.
Placing these goods in the hands of a trust ensures that they will remain at the disposal of the monarch in perpetuity. The library was begun in , following the return of the Orange-Nassaus to the Netherlands.
The library houses a collection of some 70, books, journals and brochures. The music library has 6, scores, going back to the mid 18th century.
The Royal House Finances Act  as amended in sets allowances for the King or Queen Regnant , the Heir to the Throne, and the former sovereign who has abdicated.
Provision is also made for their spouses and in the case of death, for the surviving spouse. The allowances have two components: income A-component and personnel and materials B-component.
Annual increases or decreases are provided for: the A component is linked to changes in the annual salary of the Vice-President of the Council of State ; the B-component is linked to changes in civil service pay and the cost of living.
In , the government decided that the annual State Budget of the Netherlands should show in a transparent way all the costs of the Royal House, some of which had previously been borne by various Government Ministries.
All agreed that it would be better in the long term for the Dutch to restore William themselves rather than have him imposed by the allies.
At the invitation of the provisional government, William Frederick returned to the Netherlands on November This move was strongly supported by the United Kingdom, which sought ways to strengthen the Netherlands and deny future French aggressors easy access to the Low Countries' Channel ports.
The provisional government offered William the crown. He refused, believing that a stadholdership would give him more power.
Thus, on December 6, William proclaimed himself hereditary sovereign prince of the Netherlands—something between a kingship and a stadholdership.
He was also made grand duke of Luxembourg , and to assuage French sensitivity by distancing the title from the now-defunct principality the title 'Prince of Orange' was changed to 'Prince of Oranje'.
William had thus fulfilled the House of Orange's three-century quest to unite the Low Countries. As king of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands , William tried to establish one common culture.
This provoked resistance in the southern parts of the country, which had been culturally separate from the north since He was considered an enlightened despot.
On the other hand, the King of Prussia, Frederick William III —brother-in-law and first cousin of William I, had beginning from managed to establish his rule in Luxembourg, which he regarded as his inheritance from Anne, Duchess of Luxembourg who had died over three centuries earlier.
Both got what was geographically nearer to their center of power. In , most of the southern portion of William's realm—the former Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric—declared independence as Belgium.
William fought a disastrous war until when he was forced to settle for peace. With his realm halved, he decided to abdicate in in favour of his son, William II.
Although William II shared his father's conservative inclinations, in he accepted an amended constitution that significantly curbed his own authority and transferred the real power to the States General.
He took this step to prevent the Revolution of from spreading to his country. William II died in He was succeeded by his son, William III.
A rather conservative , even reactionary man, William III was sharply opposed to the new constitution.
He continually tried to form governments that were dependent on his support, even though it was prohibitively difficult for a government to stay in office against the will of Parliament.
In , he tried to sell Luxembourg to France , which was the source of a quarrel between Prussia and France. This raised the possibility of the extinction of the House of Orange-Nassau.
One year later, Queen Emma gave birth to their daughter and the royal heiress, Wilhelmina. Wilhelmina was queen of the Netherlands for 58 years, from to Because she was only 10 years old in , her mother, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont , was the regent until Wilhelmina's 18th birthday in Since females were not allowed to hold power in Luxembourg, due to Salic law , Luxembourg passed to the House of Nassau-Weilburg , a collateral line to the House of Orange-Nassau.
For a time, it appeared that the Dutch royal family would die with Wilhelmina. Her half-brother, Prince Alexander , had died in , and no royal babies were born from then until Wilhelmina gave birth to her only child, Juliana , in The Dutch royal house remained quite small until the latter s and the early s, during which Juliana gave birth to four daughters.
Although the House of Orange died out in its male line with the death of Queen Wilhelmina, the name "Orange" continues to be used by the Dutch royalty  : vol5,— and as evidenced in many patriotic songs, such as " Oranje boven ".
The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I , during her reign, and the country was not invaded by Germany , as neighboring Belgium was.
The moral authority of the Monarchy was restored because of her rule. After 58 years on the throne as the Queen, Wilhelmina decided to abdicate in favour of her daughter, Juliana.
Juliana had the reputation of making the monarchy less "aloof", and under her reign the Monarchy became known as the "cycling monarchy".
Members of the royal family were often seen bicycling through the cities and the countryside under Juliana.
A royal marriage policy quarrel occurred starting in when Juliana's eldest daughter, the future Queen Beatrix , decided to marry Claus von Amsberg , a German diplomat.
The marriage of a member of the royal family to a German was quite controversial in the Netherlands, which had suffered under Nazi German occupation in — This reluctance to accept a German consort probably was exacerbated by von Amsberg's former membership in the Hitler Youth under the Nazi regime in his native country, and also his following service in the German Wehrmacht.
Beatrix needed permission from the government to marry anyone if she wanted to remain heiress to the throne, but after some argument, it was granted.
As the years went by, Prince Claus was fully accepted by the Dutch people. In time, he became one of the most popular members of the Dutch monarchy, and his death in was widely mourned.
On April 30, , Queen Juliana abdicated in favor of her daughter, Beatrix. In the early years of the twenty-first century, the Dutch monarchy remained popular with a large part of the population.
Beatrix's eldest son, Willem-Alexander , was born on April 27, ; the first immediate male heir to the Dutch throne since the death of his great-granduncle, Prince Alexander, in They are parents of three daughters: Catharina-Amalia , Alexia , and Ariane.
After a long struggle with neurological illness, Queen Juliana died on March 20, , and her husband, Prince Bernhard , died on December 1 of that same year.
Upon Beatrix's abdication on April 30, , the Prince of Orange was inaugurated as King Willem-Alexander, becoming the Netherlands' first male ruler since His eldest daughter, Catharina-Amalia, as heiress apparent to the throne, became Princess of Orange in her own right.
Unlike other royal houses, there has always been a separation in the Netherlands between what was owned by the state and used by the House of Orange in their offices as monarch, or previously, stadtholder, and the personal investments and fortune of the House of Orange.
As monarch , the King or Queen has use of, but not ownership of, the Huis ten Bosch as a residence and Noordeinde Palace as a work palace.
In addition, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam is also at the disposal of the monarch although it is only used for state visits and is open to the public when not in use for that purpose , as is Soestdijk Palace which is open to the public and not in official use at all at this time.
The trust also holds the items used on ceremonial occasions, such as the carriages, table silver, and dinner services. How significant these investments are is a matter of conjecture, as their private finances, unlike their public stipends as monarch, are not open to public scrutiny.
The royal family's fortune seems to have been hit by declines in real estate and equities after A surge in export revenue, recovery in real estate and strong stock market have helped steady royal family's fortunes, but uncertainty over the new government and future austerity measures needed to bring budget deficits in line may dampen future prospects.
A distinction is made in the Netherlands between the royal family and the Royal House. However, not every member of the family is also a member of the Royal House.
By Act of Parliament, the members of the Royal House are: . Members of the Royal House lose their membership and designation as prince or princess of the Netherlands if they lose the membership of the Royal House on the succession of a new monarch not being in the second degree of sanguinity to the monarch anymore , or marry without the consent of the Dutch Parliament.
This is written down in the law of membership of the Royal House, The lineage of the House of Nassau can be traced back to the 10th century.
The following family tree is compiled from Wikipedia and the reference cited in the note . A detailed family tree can be found here.
The family spawned many famous statesmen and generals, including two of the acknowledged "first captains of their age", Maurice of Nassau and the Marshal de Turenne.
The house of Orange-Nassau was relatively unlucky in establishing a hereditary dynasty in an age that favoured hereditary rule.
The Stuarts and the Bourbons came to power at the same time as the Oranges, the Vasas and Oldenburgs were able to establish a hereditary kingship in Sweden and Denmark, and the Hohenzollerns were able to set themselves on a course to the rule of Germany.
The House of Orange was no less gifted than those houses, in fact, some might argue more so, as their ranks included some the foremost statesmen and captains of the time.
Although the institutions of the United Provinces became more republican and entrenched as time went on, William the Silent had been offered the countship of Holland and Zealand, and only his assassination prevented his accession to those offices.
This fact did not go unforgotten by his successors. The Prince of Orange was also not just another noble among equals in the Netherlands.
First, he was the traditional leader of the nation in war and in rebellion against Spain. He was uniquely able to transcend the local issues of the cities, towns and provinces.
He was also a sovereign ruler in his own right see Prince of Orange article. This gave him a great deal of prestige, even in a republic.
He was the center of a real court like the Stuarts and Bourbons, French speaking, and extravagant to a scale.
It was natural for foreign ambassadors and dignitaries to present themselves to him and consult with him as well as to the States General to which they were officially credited.
The marriage policy of the princes, allying themselves twice with the Royal Stuarts, also gave them acceptance into the royal caste of rulers.
Besides showing the relationships among the family, the tree above then also points out an extraordinary run of bad luck. In the years from the death of William the Silent to the conquest by France, there was only one time that a son directly succeeded his father as Prince of Orange, Stadholder and Captain-General without a minority William II.
When the Oranges were in power, they also tended to settle for the actualities of power, rather than the appearances, which increasingly tended to upset the ruling regents of the towns and cities.
On being offered the dukedom of Gelderland by the States of that province, William III let the offer lapse as liable to raise too much opposition in the other provinces.
The main house of Orange-Nassau also spawned several illegitimate branches. These branches contributed to the political and economic history of England and the Netherlands.
Justinus van Nassau was the only extramarital child of William of Orange. His descendants were later created Counts of Nassau-LaLecq.
His descendants became the Earls of Grantham in England. The 4th earl of Rochford was a famous English diplomat and a statesman. The institution of the monarch in the Netherlands is considered an office under the Dutch Constitution.
There are none of the religious connotations to the office as in some other monarchies. A Dutch sovereign is inaugurated rather than crowned in a coronation ceremony.
In practice today, the monarch has considerably less power. This summary genealogical tree shows how the current Royal house of Orange-Nassau is related: .
The gallery below show the coats of arms used by members of the house of Orange-Nassau. Their growing complexity and use of crowns shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the family.
The ancestral coat of arms of the Ottonian line of the house of Nassau is shown right. Their distant cousins of the Walramian line added a red coronet to distinguish them.
There is no specific documentation in the literature on the origin of the arms. The lion was always a popular noble symbol, originating as a symbol of nobility, power, and royal aspirations in western culture going all the way back to Hercules.
The lion was also heavily used as a heraldic symbol in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire and France.
It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the Holy Roman Emperor , who used an eagle in his personal arms and the King of France , who used the famous Fleur-de-lis.
The lion was so heavily used in the Netherlands for various provinces and families see Leo Belgicus that it became the national arms of the Dutch Republic , its successor Kingdom of the Netherlands , Coat of Arms of Belgium , and Luxembourg.
Blue, because of its nearness to purple, which in the northern climes tended to fade red was the other choice , was also a popular color for those with royal aspirations.
The billets could have been anything from blocks of wood to abstractions of the reenforcements holding the shield together.
His and his uncle's arms are shown below. The blue and gold cross is the arms of Jeanne of Geneva, who married one of the Chalons princes.
The 2nd and 3rd show the quarterings of Brittany and Luxembourg-St. The inescutcheon overall is his paternal arms quartered of Nassau and Breda.
William the Silent 's father, William the Rich, was rich only in children. He bore the arms shown below. Clockwise from upper left they displayed the arms of Nassau 1st quarter , Katzenelenbogen 3rd quarter , Dietz 2nd quarter , Vianden 4th quarter.
Coat of arms of Rene of Chalons as Prince of Orange. Arms of William the Rich, count of Nassau-Dillenburg. The princes of Orange in the 16th and 17th century used the following sets of arms.
He used these arms until when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. It had been the property of Philip II since , but had fallen into arrears to the province.
In the Court of Holland ordered it sold. William bought it as it gave him two more votes in the States of Zeeland. He owned the government of the two towns, and so could appoint their magistrates.
This made William the predominant member of the States of Zeeland. William then added the shield of Veere and Buren to his arms as shown in the arms of Frederick Henry , William II and William III with the arms of the marquisate in the top center, and the arms of the county of Buren in the bottom center.
The coat of arms used by Maurice showing the county of Moers top left center and bottom right center and his mother's arms of Saxony center  : 78  .
Coat of arms on expeditionary banner of William and Mary, , showing the arms of William III impaled with the royal arms of England.
However, he was never recognized outside of Holland and areas friendly to Holland as Prince of Orange.
These principalities were confiscated when Napoleon invaded Germany and William VI supported his Prussian relatives. He succeeded his father as prince of Orange later that year, after William V's death.
The house of Orange-Nassau also had several illegitimate lines see below who based their arms on the arms of Nassau-Dillenburg.
The bottom most shield shows clockwise from top left the principality of Fulda, the lordship of Corvey, the county of Weingarten, and the lordship of Dortmund.
Arms of Justinus van Nassau ,  natural son of William the Silent. Arms of the lords of Zuylestein , natural son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and his descendants the earls of Rochford in England .
As an in escutcheon he placed his ancestral arms of Nassau. When he became King in , he combined the Dutch Republic Lion with the billets of the Nassau arms and added a royal crown to form the Coat of arms of the Netherlands.
In , Queen Wilhelmina replaced the royal crown on the lion and the shield bearers of the arms with a coronet. Arms of the States General of the Dutch Republic.
The sword symbolizes the determination to defend the nation, and the bundle of 7 arrows the unity of the 7 United Provinces of the Dutch Republic.
Queen Juliana was evacuated, alongside her mother Queen Wilhelmina, to the UK during World War 2 during the German invasion of the Netherlands, with Wilhelmina staying in London with the government-in-exile until liberation in The Dutch King and Queen were also special guests of Her Majesty at Royal Ascot this year, with Queen Maxima riding beside the monarch in her carriage for the royal procession.
Future monarchs of Europe Image: DX.
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Her Majesty often extends a welcoming hand to the other royal houses of Europe, which include the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway and Spain.
Queen Juliana abdicated at the age of 71 in , and her own mother Queen Wilhelmina abdicated due to failing health in Her eldest son King Willem-Alexander took the throne in that year, however Beatrix continues to undertake some royal duties and patronages.
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Prince Friso — Prince Constantijn. During this national holiday events and celebrations are held throughout the country.
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